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Calculate the energy savings and payback period based on a customer's system demand schedule and variable frequency drive horsepower. Save the worksheet to your computer by right-clicking the link below and selecting "Save Link As You may be trying to access this site from a secured browser on the server.

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How to Calculate Heat Dissipation for VFDs

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Variable Frequency Drives: Viewing the DC Bus

Sales and Marketing. Savings Estimators. Find a Distributor. Non-Standard Returns. Order Status and History. Quick Order Form. Product Lists. Warranty Returns. Credit Memos.VFDs generate a significant amount of heat and unless the heat is removed through the use of enclosure cooling, the drives can overheat and trip, causing plant outages.

Here is a simple guide to calculate the heat dissipation requirements for VFDs. The efficiency of most VFDs is between 93 to 98 percent and the balance of the energy is lost as heat.

The power dissipated is calculated by subtracting the efficiency from percent and multiplying the result by the power consumption of the drive. The heat loss of a 95 percent efficient, horsepower drive can be estimated as 5 percent of horsepower which equals 5 horsepower or watts.

Take into account the thermal losses of ancillary equipment such as DC reactors, phase shifting transformers, power supplies and switch gear. Unless these are insignificant, their losses must be added to the total heat load. The losses from a transformer could be another 4 percent of power consumption.

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If the drive uses braking resistors and is frequently stopped and started, the power dissipated by the braking resistor should also be taken into account. Drive manufacturers specify the maximum allowed operating temperature of their devices. In some cases, this is relatively low as it allows for the heating effect of power electronics on the circuit boards inside the drives. The enclosure heat load is established by adding the total heat dissipation of all items of equipment.

Additionally, the calculation needs to take into account heat transfer through the enclosure walls as a result of the ambient temperature, local heat sources, and solar radiation.

Provided the ambient temperature is lower than the required enclosure temperature, a filtered fan package may provide sufficient heat removal capacity to adequately cool the enclosure. Alternatively, should there be a need to use a sealed enclosure, an air-to-air heat exchanger solution will work well. However, if the ambient air temperature is close to or above the required enclosure temperature, then an enclosure air conditioner will be required.

This has several advantages. First, because the enclosure must be sealed, no dust, dirt, or pollutants are able to contaminate surfaces. Second, an air conditioner dries the air, which ensures that the maximum humidity requirements of VFD drives are met. This could have serious ramifications in terms of drives tripping, poor control, and plant outages caused by high temperature.

It could also cause premature drive failure.

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Although the calculation of enclosure heat load is simple, the effect of external influences is more difficult to assess: if you need help sizing your enclosure cooling system, contact our experts at Thermal Edge.It was easy to regulate the motor by simply varying the input voltage and polarity. In elevator and similar applications this worked well.

In contrast, it is much tougher to regulate the speed and direction of ac motors. Thus for a long time, it was impractical to operate ac induction motors at anything other than a constant speed.

A successful strategy for controlling the speed of ac motors did finally emerge, and today it prevails. This ac power signal runs the motor, which is usually a three-phase induction motor in industrial settings. The three-phase rectifier often consists of six diodes, two for each line phase, the two-wire output of which is filtered by two in-line series inductors and two capacitors connected together in series with the pair in parallel across the output. The midpoint between the two capacitors is grounded, a fact that determines how an oscilloscope is to be connected to view the dc voltage, as we shall see.

The inverter, a dc-to-ac converter, receives this pure dc. In examining a VFD, the first step is usually to verify the power input all three legs must be present with no appreciable difference in voltage or current. To avoid this hazardous situation, there are two possible strategies. It is not line powered and is isolated from ground, so there can be no fault current when connecting either of the probe leads to a wire or terminal that is not at ground potential.

vfd calculation formula pdf

The differential probe set amplifies or attenuates the difference between two signals. It then presents that electrical energy to the oscilloscope through one of the analog input channels. This isolates the oscilloscope ground plain from any voltage level that could cause a large fault current.

Tektronix offers differential probes in two versions, low voltage and high voltage. The low-voltage differential probe set is not to be used where the potential between the test points or between either test point and ground exceeds specified limits. Normally the dc bus voltage in a VFD is 1.

In regards to using the 12v battery as an input power supply for the inverter of the vfd, you will run into some serious obstacles in making that happen.

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The primary issue being that the system is engineered to run at specific voltages and the DC bus itself will hav been designed to run at a voltage far greater than 12 VDC, msot likely being somwhere between VDC. If you were able to make the right connections within the VFD you would need to know exactly what the operating voltage and tolerances are for the DC bus, and then conncect enough batteries is series and maybe parrallel depending on the capacity of said batteries, and then have a way to kep the batteries charged at the specified voltage.

I must say that that would be an unlikely scenario and would probably take a lot more work and trouble than the end result would be worth. So maximum output voltage magnitude will be 12V neglecting voltage drops on switches and cablesso V not possible with 12V supply at DC bus.The behaviour of torque and horsepower with respect to speed partially determines the requirements of the motor-drive system.

This torque formula implies that the torque is proportional to the horsepower rating and inversely proportional to the speed. A graph showing per cent of torque on the vertical axis and per cent of speed on the horizontal axis. A constant torque load is characterized as one in which the torque is constant regardless of speed.

As a result the horsepower requirement is directly proportional to the operating speed of the application and varies directly with speed. Since torque is not a function of speed, it remains constant while the horsepower and speed vary proportionately.

vfd calculation formula pdf

Typical examples of constant torque applications include:. For constant torque loads the speed range is typically These applications usually result in moderate energy savings at lower speeds. A graph showing per cent of horsepower and torque on the vertical axis and per cent of speed on the horizontal axis. The second type of load characteristic is constant power. In these applications the torque requirement varies inversely with speed. As the torque increases the speed must decrease to have a constant horsepower load.

The relationship can be written as:. Examples of this type of load would be a lathe or drilling and milling machines where heavy cuts are made at low speed and light cuts are made at high speed. The third type of load characteristic is a variable torque load. Examples include centrifugal fans, blowers and pumps. The use of a VFD with a variable torque load may return significant energy savings.

This means that at half speed, the horsepower required is approximately one eighth of rated maximum. Throttling a system by using a valve or damper is an inefficient method of control because the throttling device dissipates energy which has been imparted to the fluid. A variable frequency drive simply reduces the total energy into the system when it is not needed.

vfd calculation formula pdf

Figure 14 is a typical curve of motor efficiency versus loading. The efficiency of an electric motor and drive system is the ratio of mechanical output power to electrical input power and is most often expressed as a percentage.

A VFD is very efficient. At reduced loads the efficiency drops.Frequency Converters. Variable Frequency Drives. Power Inverters. Voltage Converters. Soft Starters. The efficiency of the induction motor can be improved by controlling the air-gap flux.

The flux level varies with load torque i. Hence by adjusting the voltage and frequency via a variable voltage variable frequency drive VVVF optimum efficiency can be achieved.

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Answer a couple of questions before you installing a variable frequency drive VFD. If the answer to any of these is "no", then you don't have to go any further. A VFD is not the solution - at least, not by itself. Repeat the calculation for all expected operating points to get "total" energy savings. Divide the total capital expense by the "total" energy savings you get for a calendar year. If the result is below 3. In some instances, the limit is more like 1.

The biggest power saving applications is in centrifugal fans and pumps. On centrifugal type devices the name in itself tells you that it is all to do with speed. If you want to realize all of the potential energy savings you leave check valves and dampers wide open and use motor speed to control flow. Some people in maintenance will tell you that there are bigger savings to be had mechanically. By reducing speed you increase the life of impellers, wear-rings, bearings and wear parts within the pump.

vfd calculation formula pdf

If you have a standalone pump that requires full speed the majority of the day the VFD savings may be minimal. If you have multiple pumps side by side and program them to produce the flow in combination, there are major savings to be realized by installing a VFD. You have no items in your shopping cart. Blog Tags. How to calculate VFD energy savings? Answer a couple of questions before you installing a variable frequency drive VFD Does the process actually require relatively infinite speed adjustment?Using Nordic Visitor allowed me direct access to a local agent (Gudrun) who knows how to put my trip together.

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